26.08.2019
 AP Biology Midterm Analyze Guide Composition

п»їAP Biology Mid-Term Study Guidebook 2015

Monitha Patel

Chemical Binding

Chemical substances

Sharing of a pair of valence electrons by simply two or more distinct atoms Molecule

Two or more atoms organised together by covalent provides

Ionic

Electron attraction between two atoms

Cations (+1) and Anions (-1) attract

Covalent

Sharing of valance electrons among atoms

Nonpolar

Electrons will be shared similarly

UNITED KINGDOM

Polar Covalent

Bumpy sharing of electrons among atoms

Two hydrogen atoms happen to be bonded to an individual oxygen atom

Hydrogen

Hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one particular electronegative atom is also drawn to another electronegative atom Interest of water molecules to one another

Small negative demand at one end of 1 water molecule is attracted to the moderate positive impose of another water molecule Moles

Break down for litersпѓ grams

you Mol every ml/ l

1 gopher of anything=6. 02x1023

Gibbs Free Energy

Endergonic response

Absorbs energy

(+

Exergonic

Spontaneous and released strength

(-)

ATP Hydrolysis (Exergonic reaction)

Phosphate group leaves ATP пѓ ADP

Strength is introduced

pH Size

0-6. 9: Acid [H+ ]>[OH- ]

7=Neutral [H+ ]sama dengan[OH- ]

several. 1-14-Basic [H+ ]

Proteins

twenty amino acids

Polypeptides

Polymers of amino acids

Makes up a healthy proteins

Carboxyl and amino acid groups

A(alpha)-carbon

Asymmetric center carbon atom

Aspect chain

Determines sort of amino acid

Nonpolar side chains

Hydrophobic

Polar side restaurants

Hydrophilic

Became a member of by dehydration of a water molecule

Major

Peptide bonds are set up

A chain of linked amino acids

Not affected by hydrogen bonding

Secondary

Hydrogen a genuine between one particular amino acid selection of a peptide and carboxyl group of one more A helix and b pleated sheet

Coils and retracts

Tertiary structure

3-D form of a fully flattened polypeptide

Interactions among side stores (R-Groups)

Hydrophobic interactions

Quaternary

Overall protein structure by the bonding of polypeptides

Hemoglobin

Enzymes

Activation energy

Lowered to increase a reaction

Thermodynamic buffer that must be overcome by reactants to form a merchandise

A+B пѓџпѓ C+D

Exergonic

Allosteric regulation

Regulating molecules that change shape and function of active web page Bind into a site somewhere else on the molecule

Proteins function on one internet site affect capturing of a regulating molecule upon another site Can be suppressing or incitement

Connected with an chemical with more than a single subunit

Nucleotides

Nitrogenous base, phosphate group and pentose sugar

DNA compared to RNA

GENETICS nucleotides have different sugars than RNA

DNA: one less air atom

Basic cell phone organelles

Centrosomes- absent in flower cells

Smooth ER: produces oils, phospholipids, and organelles

Lysosomes: Contains hydrolysis enzymes

Vacuole: Takes up much of the volume of a herb cell

Mitochondria: ATP activity and contains its very own DNA and ribosomes Chloroplasts: Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes

Plastids: plant cells only

Prokaryotic Or Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic

No SER, mitochondria, indivisible envelope

ATP synthesis: Plasma membrane layer

Ribosome- present

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