AP Biology Midterm Analyze Guide Composition

п»їAP Biology Mid-Term Study Guidebook 2015

Monitha Patel

Chemical Binding

Chemical substances

Sharing of a pair of valence electrons by simply two or more distinct atoms Molecule

Two or more atoms organised together by covalent provides


Electron attraction between two atoms

Cations (+1) and Anions (-1) attract


Sharing of valance electrons among atoms


Electrons will be shared similarly


Polar Covalent

Bumpy sharing of electrons among atoms

Two hydrogen atoms happen to be bonded to an individual oxygen atom


Hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one particular electronegative atom is also drawn to another electronegative atom Interest of water molecules to one another

Small negative demand at one end of 1 water molecule is attracted to the moderate positive impose of another water molecule Moles

Break down for litersпѓ grams

you Mol every ml/ l

1 gopher of anything=6. 02x1023

Gibbs Free Energy

Endergonic response

Absorbs energy



Spontaneous and released strength


ATP Hydrolysis (Exergonic reaction)

Phosphate group leaves ATP пѓ ADP

Strength is introduced

pH Size

0-6. 9: Acid [H+ ]>[OH- ]

7=Neutral [H+ ]sama dengan[OH- ]

several. 1-14-Basic [H+ ]


twenty amino acids


Polymers of amino acids

Makes up a healthy proteins

Carboxyl and amino acid groups


Asymmetric center carbon atom

Aspect chain

Determines sort of amino acid

Nonpolar side chains


Polar side restaurants


Became a member of by dehydration of a water molecule


Peptide bonds are set up

A chain of linked amino acids

Not affected by hydrogen bonding


Hydrogen a genuine between one particular amino acid selection of a peptide and carboxyl group of one more A helix and b pleated sheet

Coils and retracts

Tertiary structure

3-D form of a fully flattened polypeptide

Interactions among side stores (R-Groups)

Hydrophobic interactions


Overall protein structure by the bonding of polypeptides



Activation energy

Lowered to increase a reaction

Thermodynamic buffer that must be overcome by reactants to form a merchandise

A+B пѓџпѓ C+D


Allosteric regulation

Regulating molecules that change shape and function of active web page Bind into a site somewhere else on the molecule

Proteins function on one internet site affect capturing of a regulating molecule upon another site Can be suppressing or incitement

Connected with an chemical with more than a single subunit


Nitrogenous base, phosphate group and pentose sugar

DNA compared to RNA

GENETICS nucleotides have different sugars than RNA

DNA: one less air atom

Basic cell phone organelles

Centrosomes- absent in flower cells

Smooth ER: produces oils, phospholipids, and organelles

Lysosomes: Contains hydrolysis enzymes

Vacuole: Takes up much of the volume of a herb cell

Mitochondria: ATP activity and contains its very own DNA and ribosomes Chloroplasts: Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes

Plastids: plant cells only

Prokaryotic Or Eukaryotic


No SER, mitochondria, indivisible envelope

ATP synthesis: Plasma membrane layer

Ribosome- present

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